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11th December 2019


India home to 28% of world’s poor; Between 1990 and 2018, India’s

HDI value increased by 50 per cent (from 0.431 to 0.647)

While country has lifted 271m people out of poverty b/w 2005 and 2015, it still accounts for a large number of the world’s ‘multidimensional’ poor

In last 3 decades, life expectancy at birth in India increased by 11.6 years, whereas the average number of schooling years increased by 3.5 years

Per capita incomes increased 250 times.

The report finds that despite progress, group-based inequalities persist on the Indian Subcontinent, especially affecting women and girls.


Identifies multiple deprivations at the household and individual level in health, education and standard of living

Each person in a given household is classified as poor or non-poor depending on weighted number of deprivations his or her household

These data are then aggregated into the national measure of poverty. By:Oxford Poverty & Human Development Initiative (OPHI)

use a range of indicators to calculate summary poverty figure for a given population, in which a larger figure indicates a higher level of poverty.

Health(Child Mortality, Nutrition); Education(Years of schooling, School attendance) Living Standards(Cooking fuel, Sanitation,Drinking Water,Electricity,Housing,Assets)


The Consumer Protection Act, 1986 has been enacted to better protect the interests of the consumers

It covers all goods and services and all mode of transactions including e- commerce.

Under the Act, a 3 tier quasi-judicial mechanism, called Consumer Fora, where consumer can file a complaint against any unfair trade practices

number of fraud dockets registered under the e-commerce platform at the National Consumer Helpline are increased since 2017

NCH advise to consumers for fraudulent transactions is to lodge an FIR

/make a police Complaint or to Cyber Cell, if company is not traceable


Prime Minister, Shri Narendra Modi has remembered Subramania Bharathi on his birth anniversary.

Bharathiyar (11 December 1882 – 11 September 1921)- a Tamil writer, poet, journalist, Indian independence activist , a social reformer

Popularly known as “Mahakavi Bharathi”, he was a pioneer of modern Tamil poetry

His numerous works included fiery songs kindling patriotism during the Indian Independence movement

Notable work:

Panchali Sapatham, Pappa Pattu, Kannan Pattu, Kuyil Pattu, etc.


for launch of RISAT-2BR1 Earth imaging satellite.The “spy satellite” will be carried onboard Isro’s workhorse Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) rocket.

PSLV: It is the first Indian launch vehicle to be equipped with liquid stages

PSLV emerged as the reliable and versatile workhorse launch vehicle of India with consecutively successful missions

It successfully launched two spacecraft – Chandrayaan-1 in 2008 & Mars Orbiter Spacecraft in 2013 –that later traveled to Moon and Mars

It can take up to 1,750 kg of payload to Sun-Synchronous Polar Orbits of 600 km altitude.

The PS4 is the uppermost stage of PSLV, comprising of two Earth storable liquid engines.

The third stage of PSLV is a solid rocket motor that provides the upper stages high thrust after the atmospheric phase of launch.

PSLV uses the S139 solid rocket motor that is augmented by 6 solid strap-on boosters.

PSLV uses 6 solid rocket strap-on motors to augment the thrust provided by the first stage in its PSLV-G and PSLV-XL variants.

December 18, 2019