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20th DECEMBER 2019

INDIA’s Operation Twist

Operation Twist is a Federal Reserve monetary policy operation relating to the purchase and sale of bonds.

Operation Twist first appeared in 1961 as a way to strengthen the U.S. dollar and stimulate cash flow into the economy.

Reserve Bank of India (RBI) announced a simultaneous sale and purchase of government bonds under the Open Market Operations mechanism

Open market operations is the sale and purchase of government securities and treasury bills by RBI or the central bank of the country.


authorises the Executive Magistrate of any state or territory to issue an order to prohibit the assembly of four or more people in an area.

According to the law, every member of such ‘unlawful assembly’ can be booked for engaging in rioting.

is imposed in urgent cases of nuisance or apprehended danger of some event that has potential to cause trouble or damage to human life or property

Section 144 has been used in the past to impose restrictions as a means to prevent protests that can lead to unrest or riots.

Section 144 also restricts carrying any sort of weapon in that area where it has been imposed and people can be detained for violating it.

Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI)

established with effect from 20th February 1997 by Telecom Regulatory Authority of India Act, 1997

regulate telecom services, including fixation/revision of tariffs for telecom services which were earlier vested in the Central Government.

TRAI’s mission is to create and nurture conditions for growth of telecommunications in the country

provide a fair and transparent policy environment which promotes a level playing field and facilitates fair competition.

TRAI Act was amended for setting Telecomm. Dispute Settlement & Appellate Tribunal (TDSAT) to take over adjudicatory & disputes functions from TRAI


Habitable Exoplanet Observatory (HabEx) is a concept for a mission to directly image planetary systems around Sun-like stars

HabEx will be sensitive to all types of planets; however its main goal is, for the first time, to directly image Earth-like exoplanets- by NASA

Large UV/Optical/IR Surveyor (LUVOIR) is a concept for a highly capable, multi-wavelength space observatory with ambitious science goals

While LUVOIR is a concept for a general-purpose observatory, it has the key science goal of characterizing a wide range of exoplanets

Powerful imaging and spectroscopy observations of Solar System bodies would also be possible

EChO Network launched

EChO Network, a national program to provide a template for cross- disciplinary leadership in India

specific focus of increasing research, knowledge, and awareness of Indian ecology and the environment

India has recently embarked on a number of national-level efforts to promote ecological and environmental research on the subcontinent

India faces unprecedented threats to its human environmental & ecosystems, solving which requires a confluence of technological expertise & knowledge

EChO Network would develop national network to catalyse new generation of Indians who can synthesize interdisciplinary concepts & tackle real-world problems

December 31, 2019